University of Iowa

Implementing Response to Intervention: the Synergy of Beginning Reading Instruction and Early Intervening Services


The primary purpose of this chapter is to describe a synergistic "hybrid" model of Response to Intervention (RtI) that combines individualized effective Tier 1 classroom instruction with powerful early intervening services. First, we provide an overview and explain how RtI traditionally has been conceptualized. Next, we illustrate how to implement a hybrid model that focuses on beginning reading instruction and also incorporates additional school-level resources. Finally, we will discuss implementation issues related to identifying children who need additional intervention and propose directions for future research.


Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Foorman, B., Greulich, L. & Folsom, J. S. (2009). Implementing response to intervention: The synergy of beginning reading instruction and early intervening services. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Policy and practice: Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (vol. 22). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

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