The University of Iowa

Phonics and Word Recognition - Grade 1 Students

Decode and encode words using letter-sound knowledge and syllable types (RF.1.3; L.1.2)

  • Read and spell regular one-syllable words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams (including diphthongs), and r-controlled syllables
  • Recognize when the consonants “c” (/s/ and /k/), "g" (/g/ and /j/), “s” (/s/ and /z/), and “x” (/k/s/ and /z/) make their different sounds
  • Read and spell different representations of common vowel sounds (e.g., long a: a, a-e, ai, ay)
  • Read and spell words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs

Apply morphological knowledge (NA)1

  • Read and spell words with the inflectional endings “-ed,” “-s,” and “–es”

Develop sight word knowledge (RF.1.3; L.1.2)

  • Read and spell grade-appropriate, high-frequency irregular words (e.g., "then," "walk") 

English learner and bilingual footnotes

1 It is common for ELs not to pay attention to morphology, particularly the endings of words. Instead, ELs may concentrate on meaning only (i.e., the root or base of words). Therefore, teachers need to draw students’ attention to the form of the morphemes in English and how they convey verb tenses and plurals.