The University of Iowa

Fluency

Definition of Component

  • Students can read text with accurate word recognition, rate, and expression
  • Students can identify and self-correct errors while reading

Overview of Skills

  • Read grade-appropriate words quickly and accurately1
  • Read text with appropriate expression, phrasing, and intonation
  • Read text at an appropriate rate

English Learner and Bilingual Footnotes

1 Difficulty with reading words quickly and accurately in Spanish (and other languages with a close sound-symbol correspondence) is a key indicator that students may have a reading disability.

Grade 3 Students

Read decodable and irregular common words quickly and accurately (RF.3.4)

  • Read multisyllabic sight words fluently

Read authentic text accurately and with appropriate rate and expression (RF.3.4)

  • Read 110-120 words per minute
  • Use expression to convey tone
  • Flexibly adjust rate, accuracy, and prosody to improve comprehension when reading grade-level text
Grade 2 Students

Read decodable and irregular common words quickly and accurately (RF.2.4)

  • Read grade-appropriate sight words accurately, including some multisyllabic words

Read authentic text accurately and with appropriate rate and expression (RF.2.4)

  • Read 90-100 words per minute
  • Attend to commas for phrasing
  • Use expression to convey different characters
Grade 1 Students

Read decodable and irregular common words quickly and accurately (RF.1.4)1

  • Read regular single-syllable words fluently
  • Recognize at least 100 research-based, high frequency words by sight

Monitor for word reading accuracy (RF.1.4)

  • Reread and self-correct errors to improve understanding

Read authentic text accurately and with appropriate rate and expression (RF.1.4)

  • Read accurately (no more than 1 error in 20 words)
  • Read fluently (1 word/second)
  • Attend to end punctuation for phrasing
  • Use appropriate inflection to read declarative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences

English learner and bilingual footnotes

1 At the earliest stages, teachers may need to limit the number of new words ELs encounter in texts to help them develop automaticity in word-recognition skills.

Kindergarten

Recognize letters quickly and accurately (RF.K.4)

  • Recognize letters quickly and accurately (1/second)
  • Identify most common letter-sounds quickly and accurately (1/second)

Read decodable and irregular common words quickly and accurately (RF.K.4)

  • Recognize at least 25 research-based, grade-appropriate, high frequency words by sight