The University of Iowa

Grade 2 Students

Grade 2 Students

Expand sentences (L.2.1)1

  • Add adjectives and adverbs
  • Use compound sentences and/or compound predicates
  • Accurately compose compound sentences (L.2.1)
    • Use commas and conjunctions
    • Use irregular plurals
    • Use irregular verbs
  • Use the writing process to compose paragraphs
    • Write 1-2 paragraph essays communicating an opinion with reasons (W.2.1)
    • Write 1-2 paragraph essays on a topic with details, facts, and a concluding statement (W.2.2)
    • Write stories with details on the characters’ actions, thoughts, and feelings (W.2.3)

Write multi-paragraph friendly and formal letters (L.2.3)

English learner and bilingual footnotes

1 ELs may produce shorter texts with limited sentence and lexical variety. Teachers should focus more on overall organization and text style.

English morphology and word order can be affected by ELs’ native language. For example, Spanish-speaking ELs may write the adjective after the noun, leave out the subject, or have difficulties knowing when to include non-referential “it.” Moreover, in Spanish, when the sentence has two clauses and the subject is the same, the subject does not have to be mentioned the second time.

Grade 2 Students

Connect prior knowledge to information in the text (NA)

  • Relate prior knowledge to something in society

Monitor comprehension while reading (RL.2.7; RI.2.7)

  • Create mental and graphic images of the events and concepts

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text (RL.2.1; RI.2.1)

  • Answer “what-if,” “why,” and “how” questions using textual evidence
  • Ask low-level inference questions about a text

Recognize and use the organizational patterns/text structures to connect ideas across the text (RL.2.5; RI.2.5)

  • Use text features and graphics to locate and gain information
  • Recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts

Identify elements of literary and informational texts

  • Identify characters’ actions, motives, emotions, traits, and feelings (RL.2.3)
  • Identify dialogue (RL.2.6)
  • Identify themes of text (RL.2.2)
  • Identify implicit main ideas (RI.2.2)
  • Recognize characteristics of persuasive text (RI.2.8)

Make inferences while reading text

  • Compare and contrast different versions of text (RL.2.9; RI.2.9)
  • Distinguish literal and nonliteral meaning in text (NA)
Grade 2 Students

Connect oral vocabulary to words in print (RI.2.4; L.2.4)

  • Use new vocabulary in speaking and writing

Determine the relationships among words (L.2.5)

  • Classify and categorize related words into groups
  • Identify and use antonyms in context

Use context to determine word meanings (L.2.4)

  • Distinguish multiple-meaning words and apply the appropriate definition to a context

Apply common affixes and roots to determine word meaning (L.2.4)

  • Identify and explain how adding the affixes “un-,” “re-,” “-ly,” “-er,” and “-est” change the meaning of a root or base word1

Use resources to determine the meaning and pronunciation of an unfamiliar word (L.2.2; L.2.4)

  • Use a standard dictionary or multimedia resource to find words

English learner and bilingual footnotes

Many of these morphemes have direct equivalents in Spanish.

Grade 2 Students

Read decodable and irregular common words quickly and accurately (RF.2.4)

  • Read grade-appropriate sight words accurately, including some multisyllabic words

Read authentic text accurately and with appropriate rate and expression (RF.2.4)

  • Read 90-100 words per minute
  • Attend to commas for phrasing
  • Use expression to convey different characters
Grade 2 Students

Decode and encode complex one- and multi-syllable words (RF.2.3; L.2.2)

  • Use context to recognize when the vowel digraphs “oo” and “ea” are making their different sounds
  • Read and spell regular multisyllabic words of all 6 syllable types: closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams (including diphthongs), r-controlled syllables, and final stable syllables
  • Decode words using knowledge of basic syllable division patterns such as VC/CV, V/CV, and CVC/VC
  • Read and spell compound words (e.g., "sandbox," "cupcake")

Apply morphological knowledge (RF.2.3)

  • Read and spell words with contractions and possessives
  • Read and spell words with high frequency prefixes (e.g., “un-,” “re-,” “dis-“)
  • Read and spell irregular plurals (e.g., feet)
  • Read and spell words with the inflectional endings (“-ing,” “-er,” “-est”) that require doubling a consonant or dropping the silent-e

Develop sight word knowledge (RF.2.3; L.2.2)

  • Read and spell grade-appropriate, high frequency irregular words (e.g., "always," "because")
Grade 2 Students

Use informal, casual, formal, and academic language in the appropriate context (L.2.6; SL.2.1)

  • Listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi word responses
  • Build upon the ideas of others during a discussion
  • Use language to problem solve
  • Expand grade-appropriate vocabulary used in oral expression

Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (L.2.1)

  • Use compound subjects and predicates while maintaining subject-verb agreement
  • Use future tense verbs
  • Use adverbs that convey place
  • Use compound prepositional phrases
  • Produce and distinguish among declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences